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How to Finance a Car and Get a Car Loan

How to Finance a Car and Get a Car Loan

For most car buyers, it’s the last step, but ideally it should be the first. Knowing your finance options and your budget is a critical part of the buying process. A little preparation and knowledge can save you thousands of dollars.Many of the best car deals come from special financing offers from carmakers, so it’s important to check out what’s available on your chosen model. See our Best Car Deals and Best Lease Deals pages for the latest manufacturer incentives. To help you find dealers that are offering the lowest prices, check out our Best Price Program, which can save you thousands off of MSRP.Most car shoppers need a car loan to buy their next new or used car. Knowing the car financing basics covered below can help ensure you get the best financing deal on your new vehicle.

The Basics of Car Loans:-A car loan is one way for you to purchase a new or used vehicle. You borrow money from a lender and pay them back over time, usually with interest, unless you’re able to take advantage of a manufacturer’s special zero percent interest offer. The amount you borrow is called the loan principal or financed balance.Lenders almost always charge interest, which is how they cover their administrative costs, cover losses from people who fail to make timely payments, and make a profit. The interest rate is a percentage of the loan that you must pay back in addition to the loan principal. Interest rates are presented as an annual percentage rate.You’ll need to use a financial calculator to determine how the interest rate affects your monthly payment (use the U.S. News Car Payment Calculator). Changes in interest rates can dramatically change the affordability of that dream car. If it costs $20,000 and your 60-month loan rate is 5 percent, you’ll have a payment of $377 per month. If you’ve done your research and find a rate of 2.9 percent, you can drop it to $358 per month.That might not sound like a huge difference on the monthly payment, but over the life of the loan, you’ll pay $22,620 for your $20,000 car at 5 percent, while you’ll only pay $21,480 at 2.9 percent – that’s a $1,140 difference. While you’re paying back the lender, you’re also responsible for all taxes, fees, and expenses, like gas, insurance, and maintenance.Many people think that when you finance a car, the finance company lends you the money and the car is yours. In reality, however, the lender is buying the car and letting you use it. The lender actually owns the car, and they’re nice enough to let you drive it while you’re paying off the loan. In fact, you won’t have the title to the car and own it outright until you make your last loan payment. If you don’t make your car loan payments, the lender can repossess the car. If the car is destroyed or stolen during the term of the loan, you are still responsible for paying the loan back, which is why lenders require you to carry insurance on the car that names them as the lienholder.If you fail to provide proof of insurance to the lender, they will purchase insurance on your vehicle to protect their investment. You don’t want that to happen, however, as it’s very expensive insurance, and it only protects the lender, not you.

The Car Loan Term:-The length of the loan, or loan term, simply refers to the amount of time that it will take to pay the lender back. If you sign up for a five-year term, over the next 60 months you’ll pay the money back and then own the car free and clear.The vast majority of auto loans are repaid in monthly installments. You send the lender a set amount each month and slowly pay off the loan. Most financial institutions can set up automatic payments, which are a great way to ensure that an installment is not late or forgotten.With the rising cost of new cars, there’s been a trend in the industry to extend longer and longer loan terms to consumers; many lenders now offer eight-year car loans. While such long terms create somewhat lower payments, they can also create situations in which you owe significantly more money than the car is worth.

Your Credit Score:-When it comes to how much interest is charged on a car loan, some people get charged more interest, and some get charged less. Obviously, you want to be the one who gets charged less. The interest rate lenders charge is based on a number of factors, one of which is your credit score. Your credit score is sometimes called a FICO score, though FICO is only one of a number of credit scoring methods used by lenders.A credit score is a number that credit bureaus assign to you based on how much debt you have, the number of accounts that you have open, how much credit you have been offered, how good you’ve been about paying bills on time, and how long you’ve been using credit. Your lender will use information from your application and credit report to determine your debt-to-income ratio (the amount of debt you have compared with how much money you earn).Lenders use the score to predict your ability and likelihood to pay them back. If your score is low, lenders will assume that you’re at high risk for not paying the loan back, and they will charge you a higher interest rate to cover the higher risk. Lenders may also require a larger down payment from buyers with lower credit scores, or only extend a loan offer for a shorter term.The last place you want to find out that your credit score is low is a dealership’s finance office. You should know what your credit score is before you apply for a car loan and do your best to make sure it’s as high as it can be. Generally speaking, credit scores of 720 and above get the best loan rates.Though you are entitled to free credit reports from the major credit bureaus each year, you’ll often have to pay a few dollars extra to get your actual credit score. If your score is not as high as you’d like, paying off old bills (like credit card debt) and paying all bills on time for six to nine months should bring your score up and help you get a better interest rate. If you don’t have any credit card debt, closing unused cards can help raise the score. If you do have card balances, closing cards can actually hurt your credit by raising your percentage of credit utilized.You’ll also want to take a look at your full credit report to ensure its accuracy. If someone stole your identity and opened a credit card in your name and you aren’t aware of it, it could affect your ability to get a car loan, or the terms of any loan that you are offered. You need to report the fraudulent activity right away to the credit bureaus so any errors can be fixed before you apply for auto financing. Dealing with the credit bureaus takes time, so getting out ahead of issues is critical.

Apply:-You wouldn’t just apply to one job or one college, so you shouldn’t apply to just one lender for a car loan. Contact your bank, local credit unions, other lenders (both brick and mortar and online), and auto manufacturers to find out what they’re offering. You’ll have to fill out loan applications, which will ask for your social security number, employment and income information, monthly expenses (like mortgage and rent), and any outstanding debts, including credit cards and student loans.When you fill out auto loan applications through multiple lenders, be sure to do it over a short period of time. If you spread your applications out, the multiple applications for financing can lower your credit score, as it might look like you need multiple loans. Do all your applications around the same time, and the credit bureaus are smart enough to see that all f the inquiries are pointing to a single potential loan.Do not exaggerate your income or misstate your expenses and amount of debt. The lender will pull your credit history and credit score. If you lie, you’ll get caught. Evidence of dishonesty on a loan application can cause the loan to be rescinded at any time during its term.If you are planning to use your vehicle for a ride sharing service such as Uber or Lyft, be sure to tell potential lenders. Many will then consider the potential loan a business loan, which is subject to different underwriting standards. Failure to disclose such use can result in a lender requiring immediate full repayment of the loan.Taking out a car loan is a complex transaction, but carefully looking over the loan offers and ensuing documents is vital. The interest rate and the monthly payment shouldn’t be the only things you look at. Avoid offers that charge you high fees unless a lower interest rate or shorter loan term offsets the initial costs. Watch out for variable rate loans that start at a low rate, but climb based on time or some other rate index. With interest rates expected to rise for the next several years, it’s probably best for most buyers to lock in a low fixed rate today.Watch out for loans that have a prepayment penalty, which is a fee charged if you pay the loan off early. Paying the loan off early may not be something you’ll be able to do, but if your long-lost Aunt Mabel dies and leaves you a fortune, paying it off could save you a lot of money, and you don’t want to pay extra fees to do it.

Don’t Feel Dejected about Getting Rejected:-If your car loan application is rejected, you’ll probably feel terrible, but in the long run that rejection is likely a good thing. A rejected loan application means the lender didn’t think you’d be able to pay the money back. As hard as that is to hear, that lender likely saved you from getting into more debt than you can handle. When loans are not approved, the lender is required by law to provide you with the reasons why. You may even find in the explanation that the lender relied on erroneous information, and you should have been approved.If the rejection was based on solid information, it’s time to reassess your budget to determine what you can truly afford – not just monthly, but over the life of the loan. Try finding a less expensive car to buy, or save up more money so you have a larger down payment, reducing the amount you’ll need to borrow.Whatever you do, don’t fall into the trap of a lender who promises that they can find financing for anyone, regardless of their credit. Such high-risk loans are likely to have such unfavorable terms that they can do tremendous damage to your overall financial picture for years to come.

Show Up with Financing:-As with nearly every aspect of the car buying process, financing is negotiable. Unfortunately, it’s also confusing, which a dealer can take advantage of to make more money. In many cases, the dealership makes more money from the financing than they do from the sale of the car. So while a dealership might offer you a spectacular price on that dream car, they’re likely to come out ahead by selling you on expensive financing.While many car buyers want to believe that the car dealership is offering them the best financing rates, that’s not always the case. While you should certainly consider the loan the dealership offers, the best way to get the lowest interest rate is to bring a pre-approved loan from your bank, credit union, or third-party lender when you go to the dealership. If the dealership can beat the interest rate, fees, and other loan terms, you can decide to take the dealer’s offer. If not, you already have financing in hand, and you can focus on the price of the car and your trade-in.Now that you understand the basics of financing a car, you’ll be able to get the best car loan for your budget. Remember the foremost rule of car-buying: Knowledge is your best friend.Some of the best car deals come from special financing offers from carmakers, so it’s important to check out what’s available on your chosen model. See our Best Car Deals and Best Lease Deals pages for the latest manufacturer incentives. To find dealers that are offering the lowest prices, check out our Best Price Program, which can save you thousands off of MSRP.

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Automated Teller Machine

Automated Teller Machine

An automated teller machine, also known as an automatic teller machine (ATM, American, British, Australian, Malaysian, South African, Singaporean, Indian, Maldivian, Hiberno, Philippine and Sri Lankan English), automated banking machine (ABM, Canadian English), cash point (British English), cashline, minibank, cash machine, cash dispenser or bankomat is an electronic telecommunications device that enables the customers of a financial institution to perform financial transactions, particularly cash withdrawal, without the need for a human cashier, clerk or bank teller.According to the ATM Industry Association (ATMIA),there are now close to 3 million ATMs installed worldwide.

On most modern ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smart card with a chip that contains a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CVVC (CVV). Authentication is provided by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN) which must match the PIN stored in the chip on the card (if the card is so equipped) or in the issuing financial institution’s database.Using an ATM, customers can access their bank deposit or credit accounts in order to make a variety of transactions such as cash withdrawals, check balances, or credit mobile phones. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that in which the bank account is denominated the money will be converted at an official exchange rate. Thus, ATMs often provide the best possible exchange rates for foreign travellers, and are widely used for this purpose.

History:-The idea of out-of-hours cash distribution developed from bankers’ needs in Asia (Japan), Europe (Sweden and the United Kingdom) and North America (the United States).Little is known of the Japanese device other than it was called “Computer Loan Machine” and supplied cash as a three-month loan at 5% p.a. after inserting a credit card. The device was operational in 1966.In the US patent record, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing a “prior art device”. Specifically his 132nd patent, which was first filed on 30 June 1960 (and granted 26 February 1963). The roll-out of this machine, called Bankograph, was delayed by a couple of years, due in part to Simjian’s Reflectone Electronics Inc. being acquired by Universal Match Corporation.An experimental Bankograph was installed in New York City in 1961 by the City Bank of New York, but removed after six months due to the lack of customer acceptance. The Bankograph was an automated envelope deposit machine (accepting coins, cash and cheques) and did not have cash dispensing features.

It is widely accepted that the first ATM was put into use by Barclays Bank in its Enfield Town branch in north London, United Kingdom, on 27 June 1967.This machine was inaugurated by English comedy actor Reg Varney.This instance of the invention is credited to the engineering team led by John Shepherd-Barron of printing firm De La Rue,who was awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year Honours.Transactions were initiated by inserting paper cheques issued by a teller or cashier, marked with carbon-14 for machine readability and security, which in a later model were matched with a six digit personal identification number (PIN).Shepherd-Barron stated; “It struck me there must be a way I could get my own money, anywhere in the world or the UK. I hit upon the idea of a chocolate bar dispenser, but replacing chocolate with cash.”

The Barclays-De La Rue machine (called De La Rue Automatic Cash System or DACS) beat the Swedish saving banks’ and a company called Metior’s machine (a device called Bankomat) by a mere nine days and Westminster Bank’s-Smith Industries-Chubb system (called Chubb MD2) by a month.The online version of the Swedish machine is listed to have been operational on 6 May 1968, while claiming to be the first online ATM in the world (ahead of a similar claim by IBM and Lloyds Bank in 1971).The collaboration of a small start-up called Speytec and Midland Bank developed a fourth machine which was marketed after 1969 in Europe and the US by the Burroughs Corporation. The patent for this device (GB1329964) was filed on September 1969 (and granted in 1973) by John David Edwards, Leonard Perkins, John Henry Donald, Peter Lee Chappell, Sean Benjamin Newcombe & Malcom David Roe.

Both the DACS and MD2 accepted only a single-use token or voucher which was retained by the machine while the Speytec worked with a card with a magnetic stripe at the back. They used principles including Carbon-14 and low-coercivity magnetism in order to make fraud more difficult.The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by a British engineer working on the MD2 named James Goodfellow in 1965 (patent GB1197183 filed on 2 May 1966 with Anthony Davies). The essence of this system was that it enabled the verification of the customer with the debited account without human intervention. This patent is also the earliest instance of a complete “currency dispenser system” in the patent record. This patent was filed on 5 March 1968 in the US (US 3543904) and granted on 1 December 1970. It had a profound influence on the industry as a whole. Not only did future entrants into the cash dispenser market such as NCR Corporation and IBM licence Goodfellow’s PIN system, but a number of later patents reference this patent as “Prior Art Device”.

Diffusion:-Devices designed by British (i.e. Chubb, De La Rue) and Swedish (i.e. Asea Meteor) quickly spread out. For example, given its link with Barclays, Bank of Scotland deployed a DACS in 1968 under the ‘Scotcash’ brand. Customers were given personal code numbers to activate the machines, similar to the modern PIN. They were also supplied with £10 vouchers. These were fed into the machine, and the corresponding amount debited from the customer’s account.A Chubb-made ATM appeared in Sydney in 1969. This was the first ATM installed in Australia. The machine only dispensed $25 at a time and the bank card itself would be mailed to the user after the bank had processed the withdrawal.
Asea Metior’s Bankomat was the first ATM installed in Spain on January 9, 1969 in downtown Madrid by Banesto. This device dispensed 1,000 peseta bills (1 to 5 max). Each user had to introduce a security personal key using a combination of the ten numeric buttons.In March of the same year an ad with the instructions to use the Bancomat was published in the same newspaper.

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Consolidated Loans In America

Consolidated Loans In America

Private lenders once played a larger role in the student loan market than they do today.  In the past, students submitted the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), to the Department of Education, before being referred to private lenders for loan fulfillment.  In other words; the Federal Government would determine your eligibility for subsidized loans, and then a private credit union, bank or loan servicer would provide the funds.

Debt is a way of life for Americans, with overall U.S. household debt increasing by 11% in the past decade. Today, the average household with credit card debt has balances totaling $16,748, and the average household with any kind of debt owes $134,643, including mortgages.

While “don’t spend above your means” will always be sound advice, NerdWallet’s annual survey of household debt and its costs makes clear that increasing debt loads aren’t just a case of lifestyle creep. The rapid growth in medical and housing costs is dwarfing income growth, making it challenging for many families to make ends meet without leaning on credit cards and loans.

But this doesn’t mean Americans are doomed to be indebted for life. Careful spending and steady debt eradication can go a long way toward getting people to financial freedom.Bank of America was active in that market, providing financing for participants in the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP).  Stafford Loans, and other government-subsidized initiatives, including consolidation loans, were among BOA’s stable of student assistance programs.  Today, regional and national banks extend attractive private student loan products, but they are no longer included in the federal financial aid process.Educatioon Reconciliation Act of 2010 made fundamental changes in the way student loans are administered.  Subsidies for banks that gave student loans were eliminated, and the student loan program took on a self-funded model.  By cutting out the middleman – the private lender – the Department of Education administers funding with greater efficiency, thus expanding educational opportunity among borrowers.

All loans issued after July 1st, 2010 are part of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program, which distributes aid directly from the DOE. Federal Loan Consolidation remains an option for students, and BOA does offer a portfolio of student-oriented financial services that meet a variety of educational needs.

Pre-Consolidation Considerations:-Loan consolidation allows students to package existing educational debt into a single government loan. If you have multiple outstanding federal student loans, including Stafford, Perkins and PLUS Loans, it might make fiscal sense for you to utilize consolidation. But participation does not always guarantee a rosier outlook.  Some candidates are better off sticking with the status quo.  Ask these questions to help determine whether or not consolidating is your best option:

    -How many lenders hold your student loans?
    -What types of student loans do you have?
    -What are your interest rates?
    -Are monthly payments difficult to meet?
    -Are you still within your grace period?

Federal Consolidation Loan:-Federal Consolidation allows some students to realize better interest rates and structured repayment that is within reach.  For qualified participants, a single monthly payment eliminates the need to pay each loan individually, and the repayment terms of the loan can be extended for as long as 30 years.Students in the market for this type of loan should pay close attention to how total repayment costs might be impacted. Consolidating and extending the repayment schedule of your loans adds more interest, which has the potential to add considerable costs to your total debt obligation. If you are struggling to make monthly student loan payments, consolidating your student debt might be required to protect your credit.  By extending the life of your loan repayment, your monthly payments are made smaller, but borrowers must weigh these benefits against the higher amount of interest that will be paid over the course of the loan.Consolidating extends student loan repayment up to 30 years, and it also provides opportunities for borrowers to add fixed interest rates to outstanding loans. Variable interest terms that come with some student loans are subject to fluctuations, so locking a fixed rate makes sense. Direct Consolidation changes are irreversible. Once you consolidate, it is as though your original loans are off the table, and you are starting with a clean slate.  Before you consolidate, make sure that positive features of your original loans are not lost during the transition.

Private Student Loan Consolidation:-Students that need assistance beyond federal loans and scholarships seek private student loans.  The Bank of America Student Program Consolidation Loan gives borrowers the flexibility to roll multiple private education loans into one consolidated loan.  Eligible loans include those that were used for expenses like textbooks and computers.

A single, consolidated monthly payment offers relief from high interest rates and reduces administration costs on multiple loans. The minimum consolidation loan is valued at $10,000. Borrowers with 48 consecutive on-time payments earn a .78% interest rate reduction and an additional .25% is discounted when participants enroll in an automated withdrawal payment program.

Key findings:-Why debt has grown: The rise in the cost of living has outpaced income growth over the past 13 years. Median household income has grown 28% since 2003, but expenses have outpaced it significantly. Medical costs increased by 57% and food and beverage prices by 36% in that same span.How much debt we have: Total debt is expected to surpass the amounts owed at the beginning of the Great Recession by the end of 2016.Americans will soon owe more than they did in December 2007 — but that doesn’t mean another recession is looming.

The cost of debt:-The average household with credit card debt pays a total of $1,292 in credit card interest per year. This could increase to $1,309 after the Federal Reserve voted on a rate hike of a quarter of a percentage point.After adjusting for inflation, household debt has grown 10 percentage points faster than household income since 2002. However, this gap has gotten significantly smaller since 2008, when the difference between debt and income was 38 points.After years of rapid growth, education costs have stopped outpacing income — growing 26% since 2003 , compared with 28% income growth.And while student loan debt has grown 186% in the past decade, this growth has also slowed in recent years. Between September 2015 and September 2016, student loan balances increased by just 6.32%, the lowest annual growth since we started tracking the numbers in 2003.In addition to the apparent plateauing of education costs, it’s possible that student loan growth has slowed because of lower college attendance, specifically in the for-profit sector. There’s been a steep decline in enrollment at four-year for-profit institutions: 13.7% between fall 2014 and fall 2015.
This isn’t totally surprising. Several for-profit colleges have closed due to pressure by the Department of Education and stronger regulatory scrutiny, and others are losing students as the economy rebounds and their potential students now have more job opportunities. In addition, the number of for-profit colleges that can award financial aid has declined.For-profit schools are, on average, more expensive than public universities, and students who attend are more likely to take out loans. Students are opting instead to either attend nonprofit colleges or universities or be in the workforce, both of which likely contribute to lower overall student loan balances.

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